Photo by Matyas Rehak/Shutterstock
Photo by Shutterstock
The Pyramid of the Niches in El Tajin was likely used to track the days of the year.
Follow in the footsteps of Toltecs, Zapotecs, Mexica, and Maya at these 10 pyramids across Mexico.
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Mexico’s pre-Columbian civilizations can be hard to keep straight, but they shared a few common traits. Most of their archaeological sites include ball courts, they considered corn an essential crop, and they all built pyramids.
Their handiwork can now be found throughout Mexico, offering a window into the country’s ancient past. Read on for everything you need to know about Mexico’s famous pyramids, including 10 of the most spectacular, culturally important ones in the country.
The short answer is: Nobody knows. Sadly, the pyramids in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán are long gone, but dozens of others across Mexico still stand.
Pre-Columbian cultures like the Olmecs, Mixtecs, Toltecs, Zapotecs, Aztecs (or Mexica), and Maya created these impressive structures. For the most part, each civilization had a specific building style, though they all used materials like clay, stone, and mortar.
The most significant pyramids were constructed over roughly two millennia, from around 900 B.C.E. to about 1000 C.E.
Several top pyramids are located along Mexico’s eastern coast. Others are clustered inland, around Mexico City and farther south in Oaxaca. Find 10 of our favorites on the following map, then keep reading for even more info.
The ancient Maya city of Coba, which peaked between 800 and 1100 C.E., is home to two impressive pyramids—the Iglesia and the Castillo (the second largest pyramid on the Yucatán peninsula). Half-ruined and covered in plants, both structures look as if they’ve recently been unearthed, creating a mysterious, almost magical atmosphere.
How to Get There: Coba is just over two hours by car from Cancún and 45 minutes from Tulum. If you’d rather not drive, many tour operators offer excursions.
The Castillo de Kukulcán, with its nine stepped platforms, is the centerpiece of Chichén Itzá, a Maya city that flourished from around 700 to 900 C.E. The pyramid functioned as an enormous calendar and was designed so that, on the equinoxes, the play of sunlight and shadow would create the illusion of a snake descending to earth. While visitors are no longer allowed to climb the steps or access the Temple of Kukulcán at the top of the pyramid, they can tour other ball courts, temples, and palaces throughout Chichén Itzá.
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How to Get There: Given that it’s halfway between Cancún and Mérida, this UNESCO World Heritage site is often crowded with tourists and vendors. The plus is that you can experience Chichén Itzá as it was during its peak—a bustling city.
The Maya were never centralized in one capital, as were the Aztecs and the Toltecs. Instead, the civilization resembled ancient Greece, with competing, independent city-states that shared a language and religious beliefs even as they developed different styles of architecture and their own distinct characters. The contrast between Chichén Itzá and Uxmal is impossible to miss. The structures at Uxmal, including the Pyramid of the Magician, were built in the Puuc style, with highly stylized motifs and a decorative richness not typical of other Maya cities.
How to Get There: A drive of about 70 minutes, on two well-maintained highways, will take you from modern Mérida to ancient Uxmal.
How to Get There: With the opening of the Palenque airport in 2014, it’s become easy to visit this once remote site. Interjet offers twice-weekly flights (on Wednesdays and Saturdays) from Mexico City.
Located in the state of Tabasco, La Venta is home to Mexico’s oldest known pyramid, built around 900 B.C.E. The structure isn’t particularly tall at 100 feet and, since it was built of clay instead of stone, its original rectangular shape has been softened by the ages, making it appear more like a rounded hill. Still, it’s fascinating to behold, as is the sophisticated urban planning of La Venta, which served as a forerunner to Teotihuacan, Tula, and other ancient capitals.
How to Get There: You have to work to visit La Venta. The site is located in a wet, humid corner of Mexico about 90 minutes by car from Villahermosa, which is already off the beaten path. Bring insect repellent.
Situated along the Pacific, the state of Oaxaca was, and still is, the center of the Zapotec people. Monte Albán served as the capital for more than a millennium, from around 500 B.C.E. to 800 C.E., and traded frequently with Teotihuacán—another Mesoamerican city with a similarly large ceremonial center. Today, visitors can explore the site’s “truncated” pyramids, which look like raised platforms topped by temples, as well as several famous tombs and stone carvings.
How to Get There: Sitting five miles from the city center of Oaxaca, Monte Albán is easy to reach by bus or taxi.
In the state of Veracruz, El Tajin is one of the most important sites from the so-called epiclassic (or late classic) period, dating from around 900 C.E. The city’s residents were avid ballplayers—more than 60 ball courts have been excavated here. You’ll also see one of Mexico’s most unusual buildings, the Pyramid of the Niches. The relatively short pyramid, 59 feet high, consists of six platforms, each lined with carved niches that were most likely used to track the days of the year.
How to Get There: El Tajin is pretty remote, but if your travels take you to Veracruz, it’s a four-hour drive to the site.
The largest pyramid in the world (in terms of volume) is not in Egypt, but outside the city of Puebla. Upon first glance, however, the Great Pyramid of Cholula looks like something else entirely, covered in vegetation and topped with a 16th-century church constructed by the Spanish. Visitors can access some of the restored sections of the pyramid, then explore the nearly five miles of tunnels excavated by archeologists throughout the surrounding ancient city.
How to Get There: Cholula is four miles outside of Puebla, which is famous for its colonial buildings, cuisine, and the recently opened International Museum of the Baroque.
Teotihuacán, which flourished from roughly 100 B.C.E. to 550 C.E., was one of the most influential cities in Mesoamerica, with a population of nearly 200,000 at its peak. Dominated by the enormous Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and a citadel, which sit along the 2.5-mile-long Avenue of the Dead, the site awed even the Aztecs, who wondered what vanished civilization could have created such a monumental city.
How to Get There: Located an hour north of Mexico City, Teotihuacán is a popular day trip (visit midweek for smaller crowds). Many tours stop en route at the Basilica of Guadalupe for a glimpse into another aspect of Mexican culture.
The Toltecs stepped into the vacuum created by the fall of Teotihuacán, establishing their capital at Tula (or Tollan), which reached its peak between 950 and 1150 C.E. The most impressive structure here is the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, fronted by a colonnade and topped by imposing, 13-foot-tall statues of Toltec warriors, but you’ll also want to explore the vast ceremonial plaza, the palace, and the ball courts.
How to Get There: Tula is another easy day trip from either Mexico City (roughly 90 minutes by car) or the colonial city of Querétaro (just under 2 hours).
This story originally appeared online on August 15, 2019. It was updated on May 7, 2020, to include new information.
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