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Constructed in the 17th century but heavily modified a century later, this castle—actually more of a fortress—lords over Montjuïc hill. Its use as a military bastion spans from the 1600s into the mid-1800s, when Barcelona was the site of a number of government insurgencies. It was later used as a prison and execution site for anarchists—most notoriously during the Franco regime, when the exiled president of Catalonia, President Lluís Companys, was killed there by a firing squad in 1940. Today it’s a museum tracing the castle’s long military history. The viewing platform atop the castle’s parade ground provides excellent views of the city and harbor below. Castle admission is free on Sundays after 3 p.m.