You have two options for travel to the island—airplane or cruise ship. The cruise ships stop at San Juan, which is a must-see city destination (though to really experience the life of the island, you must travel beyond the island’s capital). SJU is the biggest and most modern airport in the Caribbean. If you are flying here from another Caribbean island, Liat may be your best option. From the East Coast of the U.S. mainland, try Jetblue, Spirit, or Southwest. From everywhere else, there is Delta, American, or United. A perk for U.S. citizens: This is a passport-free destination!
For daytime travel, public transit services do exist within individual cities, but they are limited. Taxis are clean and reliable—look for white cabs with Taxi Turístico on the front doors. The shared cab (public) system goes around the island for a small fare, but it takes an extended amount of time due to the numerous stops along the way. Most travelers choose to rent a car for the duration of their stay. The currency is US dollars, and the road system resembles that of the mainland. There are two exceptions: Distances are measured in kilometers, while speed is measured in miles per hour. Additionally, gas is represented in liters, and prices are competitive with those on the mainland. One roadway custom worth mentioning is that police and ambulances drive with their lights flashing, but unless they also blast their sirens, there's no need to pull over or move aside.
The island was called “Borinquén” before the arrival of the Spanish, who changed the name to Puerto Rico. (The burial ground of Spanish conquistador and first governor Juan Ponce de León is said to be in San Juan.) You might hear native-born Puerto Ricans refer to themselves as “Boricua,” which is derived from the original island name. The indigenous Taíno people were present upon the arrival of the Spanish, and there are Puerto Ricans alive today who are distant relatives of the original islanders. You can still find well-preserved pictographs of Taíno artwork in caves and rocks.
Local festivals are worth attending to give you a true taste of Puerto Rican customs and lifestyle. If you’re interested in food, visit the National Plantain Festival in Corozal (October), Saborea Puerto Rico at Escambron Beach (May), and the Coffee and Chocolate Expo in San Juan (September). For culture, try the Hatillo Masks Festival in Hatillo (December), or the Rincon International Film Festival, Puerto Rico's largest film festival (April). And for the largest street party of the year, come experience San Juan’s Mardi Gras, commonly referred to as "SanSe," celebrating Saint Sebastian, in January. To find more festivals, just ask the locals. Puerto Ricans always know where to find the party.
Dr. Chelsea Harms-Tuohy is a marine scientist in Puerto Rico. After moving to the island in 2011, she seized the opportunity to learn a new culture and embrace the island way of life. When she's not scuba diving on the beautiful reefs, she enjoys exploring the island through day trips and photographing its natural beauty. Chelsea owns and operates a scientific education company, Isla Mar Research Expeditions.