Based on an idea by Simon Wiesenthal and erected in 2000, British artist Rachel Whiteread’s Nameless Library in the Judenplatz sits in one of the most tranquil squares in Vienna’s Inner City. The simple, stark, 12-foot-high concrete block is dedicated as a Holocaust memorial. Since the Middle Ages, Viennese Jewish life centered around the Judenplatz, and excavations during the memorial construction revealed a synagogue that had been destroyed in the pogroms of 1421. The square’s Misrachi-Haus, with its baroque facade dating from 1694, is now a branch of the Jewish Museum Vienna (its main location is in the Palais Eskeles). Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach’s stately Bohemian Court Chancellery building and a monument to the Enlightenment author Gotthold Ephraim Lessing also face the square.