The town of St. Andrews was historically the ecclesiastical and educational capital of Scotland. Oh, you heard something about a golf course, too? Yes, links golf has been played here since the 1600s and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club is traced to 1754. Still, that's nothing compared to the University—the U.K.'s third-oldest—which received its charter in 1412. Christian pilgrims arrived at least 300 years before that, leaving the majestic ruins of a 12th-century cathedral.