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The AFAR Guide to Ukraine
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Ukraine regained its independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but endured considerable political unrest until 2004, when the peaceful 'Orange Revolution' gave rise to an internationally monitored electoral process. Ukraine has its roots as a seat of power for the first eastern Slavic state, Kievan Rus, which emerged in the 9th century AD. The official language is Ukrainian, though it is estimated that nearly one quarter of the population speaks Russian.

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