Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) Old Military Headquarters
As an American, I vaguely understood China's role in World War I and II. I never really got that China was essentially plunged in a violent Civil War that was only interrupted by those wars, for decades.
Chiang Kai-Shek was the leader of the Kuomingtang, while Mao Zedong famously led the Communists. They fought across this enormous country. As a result, so many cities have some some memorial of Chiang Kai-Shek's slow retreat to Taiwan.
Chongqing is a really important city in this history, and continues to be a political center of the country. It was China's capitol during WWII, and you can visit Chiang Kai-Shek's headquarters in the mountains. It's where he met American advisers, with his American-trained wife advising at his side. You can sit in the actual chair he sat in for these meetings. It's a big compound, with a lot to see. A short drive from downtown Chongqing, ask your hotel to arrange a driver.
Photo by Allen Larsen/Wikipedia.